The world of children in the world of play. By playing he gets satisfaction, both physically and mentally. This is the basis for children’s development and is a provision for further education. Playing is meant here is not just playing, but playing educational. The cognitive theory clearly states the importance of playing for children, playing will not only develop cognitive abilities but also develop other aspects. the child’s thinking process through games, in order to develop creativity and flexibility of child development as a whole. For children aged 4-6 years, the independent play has been formed. Children like to play alone with various objects they have, attention and the forms of games they play have started to the pattern. Therefore, the form of the game presented also demands the use of more complex organs. He is already able to walk, run, and the motor form of the organ is also wider.
Play activities serve to improve children’s cognitive abilities. Cognitive involvement in play activities moves from the involvement of simple cognitive abilities to higher cognitive abilities. The types of play are:
- a) Play Constructively.
Playing activities are carried out by children by walking along with small blocks into buildings, such as houses, towers, and so on. In addition, in this play activity, children train fine motor movements. This can be seen when he uses his fingers to arrange blocks so they don’t fall. At the same time, children also operate their cognitive abilities to think about how to prevent the blocks from falling and choose the right blocks to make the building they want. Play activities are mainly carried out by children aged 3-5 years.
- b) Play For The Development Of Basic Science Skills
This type of play is intended to develop basic science skills. Therefore, this game requires activities related to cognitive activity. For example, activities in conducting observations, investigations, activities in obtaining discoveries, and classifying objects and events related to science.
- c) Math Games
Like the games played in science games, math mate games are also a form of the game that involves cognitive activity from a simple level to a more complex level such as mentioning numbers, matching numbers with the number of objects that match the numbers in question, and so on.
- d) Play For Cognitive Ability Development
Language and psychosocial skills, namely playing dramas are a reflection of the development of cognitive abilities of kindergarten-age children which are emphasized in imagination or fantasy. Along with this, playing drama is a means that can be used for the development of language and communication skills, as well as the child’s psycho-social or behavioral abilities. Furthermore, the activity in playing this drama is very useful in developing children’s creativity. In playing drama, children actively talk about matters related to the drama they play, this activity is beneficial for the development of children’s ability to socialize and communicate.
Mathematics is one of the knowledge needed by humans in carrying out their daily lives. For example, when shopping for food we need to choose and calculate the number of objects to be purchased and must be paid for. When leaving, we need to remember the direction of the road where we are going, how far it is, and choose the faster way to get to our destination. When we think about mathematics, we talk about similarities and differences, organizing information/data, understanding numbers, quantities, patterns, spaces, shapes, estimates, and comparisons.
Here are some examples of math games that can be applied.
- Bola Keranjang. (Ball and Basket)
Tools and materials are balls and baskets. The way to play is that the children are divided into three groups (red, blue, and green) according to the color of the basket for the number of children in the group according to the number of balls. Each group puts the ball into the basket according to the color of the group. For their turn to play, parents can arrange who has to enter first, children must remember their respective groups, and each group takes turns entering the ball, it can be started from the front / it can also be from the side. After all the activities are completed, it remains only to count the balls that were successfully entered. Which one puts the most balls? For how to count the balls, parents take and show the balls to the children and they themselves count the balls.
- Permaina Corong Tambah (Funnel Game Add)
Tools and materials, namely an added funnel (corong tambah), seeds, small balls. The way to play is that the children gather in a circle, sing the desired song while rotating a small ball, when the song is finished it is seen where the ball stops, the child holding the ball is told to play the added funnel according to the number called the parents and then calculate the result.
- Permaina Lubuk Kurang (Minus Lubuk Game)
Tools and materials, namely Minus Lubuk, seeds, small balls. The way to play is that the children gather in a circle, sing the desired song while rotating the small ball, when the song is finished, see where the ball stops, the child holding the ball is told to play the minus lubuk according to the amount called the parents then count the remaining seeds after deducting.
Ronald, (2006), Peran Orangtua Dalam Meningkatkan Kualitas Hidup, Mendidik dan Mengembangkan Moral Anak, Bandung: Yrama Widya, h. 78.
Lilis Madiyawati, (2012), Permainan Dan Bermain, Jakarta:Prenada, h. 41