Humans need to do a job to survive. By working, humans will be able to meet the needs they need. Of course, in doing a job, a person is required to be able to work optimally. With maximum performance, the work done will also be maximized. On the other hand, with work performance that is not optimal, the work done will also not be efficient and effective. One of the things that can make a person have poor work performance is because he is in a condition that is not prime such as sleepy due to fatigue. One of the characteristics that can be seen from someone who is sleepy is yawning. In Indonesia, the highest number of deaths were experienced by bus drivers and passengers, namely 35%, drivers and pedestrians 21%, two-wheeled or 3-wheeled vehicle users as much as 36%. This is because the driver and other workers are tired and sleepy. Although in this report, the subjects are private employees who do not work on the street, but of course, excessive yawning behavior while working remains a behavior that interferes with work performance. Reporting from Alodokter, Sleepiness at work, especially during the day, can be caused by various things, such as poor sleeping habits, fatigue, irregular work schedules, and jet lag. In addition, certain diseases or conditions, including sleep apnea, sleep disorders, narcolepsy, or the side effects of medications, such as antihistamines and sedatives, can also cause daytime sleepiness.
According to Anderson, James R.; Meno, Pauline (2003) yawning most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its infectious qualities. It is commonly associated with fatigue, stress, sleepiness, boredom, or even hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by the perception that another person is yawning (for example, seeing someone yawn, or talking to someone yawning on the phone). This is a typical example of positive feedback. This “contagious” yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles and can occur between members of different species. Approximately twenty psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by experts but there is little agreement on the advantages of one of them. This behavior can be said to be a problematic behavior because it has disrupted one’s work performance, so it is necessary to find a way to reduce or even eliminate the bad behavior.
According to Dr. Dahlia Novarianing Asri and Suharni in the book Behavior Modification Theory and Its Application Behavior modification is an effort, process, or action to change behavior by applying systematically tested learning principles to the application of experimentally tested learning principles to change behavior that is maladaptive, non-adaptive habits are weakened and eliminated, and adaptive behavior is elicited and reinforced. In this report, the excessive yawning behavior in the subject is a behavior that is not adaptive and needs to be weakened or eliminated because it has interfered with the subject’s performance at work. Therefore, the subject requires behavior modification in dealing with the problem of excessive yawning behavior when working.
In behavior modification there are also several techniques that can be used to achieve the predetermined behavioral targets, including the token economy technique, desensitization, extinction, punishment, positive and negative reinforcement, shapping, and self-management.
According to behavioral principles, Mahoney & Thorsen said self-management is concerned with awareness and skills to manage the surrounding circumstances that affect individual behavior (in Lutfi Fauzan, 1992:35). From some of the definitions above, it can be concluded that. Self-management behavior change technique is one of the application of behavior modification theory and is a combination of behavioristic theory and social cognitive theory. this is a new thing in helping the counselee solve the problem because in this technique it emphasizes the counselee to change behavior that is considered detrimental which previously emphasized the help of others.
The benefits of doing this behavior modification are that the process of behavior modification can be planned in advance by asking the consent of the individual concerned, the steps in the implementation of activities can change at any time during the behavior modification process which is carried out according to needs, if from the results of observations found that techniques that failed or were less successful in bringing about change, then they can be immediately identified and substituted techniques are sought, techniques in behavior modification can be arranged rationally and the results of treatment can be predicted and evaluated objectively. And the time required to carry out the change procedure is more efficient. compared with changes in behavior that occur in the insight obtained by the subject. By carrying out a systematic behavior modification as described above, it is hoped that the procedures carried out will be clearer, more effective and efficient in their application to excessive yawning behavior in work-related subjects. Looking at one of the examples of problematic behavior above, then actually, behavior modification can be applied to deal with problematic behavior, both excessive problematic behavior such as smoking, tantrums and problematic behaviors that are lacking and need to be improved such as lazy behavior, dirty behavior, and so on.
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