Underachievement or underachievement is if there is a discrepancy between the child’s school achievement and his ability index as evident from intelligence, achievement or creativity tests, or from observational data, where the school level is significantly lower than the child’s ability level.
Definition of Underachiever Individuals who achieve less (underachiever) are individuals who are not motivated. They consistently do not show effort, in fact they tend to work far below their potential Definition according to one expert: Bricklin & Bricklin (1967) Students whose performance in school is weaker than would be expected based on their level of intelligence.
Characteristics of gifted children with less achievement can be categorized into 3 different levels: 1). Primary Characteristics: Low Self-Esteem. The characteristics most often found consistently in gifted children with low achievement are low self-esteem; 2). Secondary Characteristics: Avoidance Behavior. Low self-esteem leads to non-productive avoidance behavior, both at school and at home. By stating that there is no point in studying. Blaming the school to avoid responsibility. And expects to reach low scores; and 3). Tertiary Characteristics. Tertiary characters such as bad study habits, problems with peer acceptance, poor concentration, and discipline problems at home and at school.
Learning achievement is defined as a scale of knowledge obtained from formal education and is shown through test scores (Lawrence & Vimala, 2012). In accordance with this opinion, Goods in Annes (2013) defines learning achievement as the knowledge achieved and skills developed in various subjects at school which are usually determined by the grades given by the teacher or obtained from test scores or both.
Learning achievement is the learning result achieved after going through the process of teaching and learning activities. Learning achievement can be shown through the value given by a teacher from the number of fields of study that have been studied by students. Every learning activity, of course, always expects to produce maximum learning (Mulyasa, 2005).
Meanwhile, Muhibbin Syah as revealed by Rohmalina Wahab, Learning Psychology, cites the opinion of several psychologists on the definition of learning, including Skinner, as quoted by Barlow in his book Educational psychology: The Teaching Learning Process, who argues that learning is a process of adaptation. or a progressive behavior adaptation (a process of progressive behavior adaptation).
The results of an achievement from learning certainly have aspects that can be an indicator of achievement in learning. There are at least three (3) aspects of learning achievement, all of which can be studied in various literacy.
1). The cognitive aspect as an indicator in the achievement of an achievement is as conveyed by Muhibbin Syah that “to measure student achievement in the cognitive field this can be done in various ways, both with written tests and oral tests”. (Shah, 2001).
2). The affective aspect is a field of thinking that includes behavioral characteristics such as feelings, interests, attitudes, emotions, or values. According to Harun Rasyid and Mansur “the affective field determines the success of one’s learning. People who do not have an interest in certain subjects will find it difficult to achieve maximum study success. Someone who is interested in a subject is asked to achieve maximum learning outcomes (Rasyid & Mansur, 2007).
3). Psychomotor is an aspect related to movement, such as those related to nerve muscles such as running, stepping, drawing, talking, disassembling equipment or installing equipment and so on. Harun Rasyid and Mansur said “Basic movements are movements that lead to specific complex skills. Students who have achieved basic competencies in this domain are able to perform tasks in the form of skills according to standards or criteria” (Rasyid & Mansur, 2007).
Rosyid et al, (2019: 10) suggest learning achievement factors, namely: internal factors are factors that come from students in the form of physiological factors (health and body condition), psychological (interests, talents, intelligence, emotions, fatigue, and ways of doing things). study). While external factors are factors that come from outside the students themselves which are influenced by the family environment, school environment, community environment, and natural environment.
Rohmalia Wahab suggests that IQ is not the only determinant of a person’s success in learning achievement. There are “factors that influence children’s learning achievement and competency-based curriculum in elementary schools” and other factors that contribute to the development of learning achievement. The factors that influence learning achievement are as follows: (1) The influence of superior education and learning; (2) Brain development and measurement, and (3) Emotional intelligence (Wahab, 2015, pp. 247-248).
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Syafi’I, Ahmad., Marfiyanto, Tri., & Kholidatur Rodiyah, Siti. 2018. STUDI TENTANG PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA DALAM BERBAGAI ASPEK DAN FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI. Jurnal Komunikasi Pendidikan, Vol.2 No.2. ISSN 2549-1725.
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